First Diagnosed Case of Porcine Delta Coronavirus Detected in Washington State

The Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (WADDL) received confirmation of a new (to Washington) enteric disease in pigs from a farm in eastern Washington that was having a large mortality in baby pigs.  WADDL sent the samples to a Midwestern lab for DNA testing which determined the virus was  porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV).  This virus is relatively new to the United States and is related to Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) virus, Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE) and Swine Enteric Coronavirus (SECoV).

An ongoing investigation by the Washington Department of Agriculture State Veterinarian’s Office will try to determine how the disease may have entered the state.  The mortalities have stopped now that the sows have developed a natural immunity to the disease.

Please contact WSDA State Veterinarian’s office (360-902-1881) or WADDL for any follow up questions.

Dr. Brian Joseph, DVM, WSDA State Veterinarian

 

Porcine Delta Coronavirus Facts

As noted above by Dr. Brian Joseph, DVM, WSDA State Veterinarian, Porcine Delta Coronavirus (PDCoV) was detected in a herd of pigs in Washington State in mid-May.  PDCoV is a coronavirus that causes diarrhea and vomiting in all ages groups and mortality in nursing piglets.  PDCoV was first detected in pigs in Hong Kong in 2012, and was first detected in the US in February 2014 on the heels of the severe outbreak or Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV is different type of coronavirus) that started in May of 2013 in the US. Mortality rates vary widely on pigs infected with PDCoV, however mortality rates have been much lower than those experienced with the PEDv outbreak of 2013/2014; highest mortality rate is in nursing piglets under 14 days of age where there is no colostrum immunity to protect the piglets.  There is no vaccine for PDCoV, however biosecurity at the farm and with transportation vehicles can help prevent the spread of PDCoV and other swine dieses.  Humans and other animals cannot get infected with PDCoV and it is safe to eat pork as there is no risk to food safety or human health from PDCoV.

An informative website outlining PDCoV is:  https://www.pig333.com/pig-diseases/delta-coronavirus_162.  Also, the Pork Information Gateway, www.porkgateway.org, has excellent resources about Cornavirus Diseases and biosecurity for both commercial producers and youth producers.  It is important to remind youth showing pigs or transporting pigs for pre-weigh/tag events to help do their part to protect not only their pigs from diseases but other pigs back in their area.  The Pork Information Gateway has an excellent video for youth on biosecurity practices for their pigs and equipment involved with raising pigs at http://porkgateway.org/resource/biosecurity/ .  This specific disease outbreak has not been associated with any fairs or show pigs, however as show season starts up and more pigs are transported it is good to remind our younger and new producers about good biosecurity practices when raising pigs.

By Sarah M. Smith, WSU Extension

 

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Detected in Washington Swine Herd

“Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus was recently (late May) diagnosed in a small, swine farm in Washington by the USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratory.  Please contact your veterinarian concerning implementing vaccination and management measures to reduce the potential incidence of and mitigate the effects of this disease syndrome,”  Dr. Brian Joseph, DVM, Washington State Department of Agriculture State Veterinarian.

PRRS was first recognized in the US in the mid-1980’s and was called “mystery swine disease”.  A study by the National Pork Board (NPB) in 2011 reported that PRRS Cost the industry $664 million annually.  Improved understanding of the disease, pig production, animal health care and management have been able to control the incidences, severity, and impact this disease has had on pig farms.  Because Washington state has a small swine industry compared to the Midwest, and the fact that most of our swine herds are isolated from one another, we have not had the incidences/experiences with many of these diseases.  This is both good and bad—because of isolation we have been able to keep the disease out, but we also lack experience of dealing with these diseases when they present themselves (which can lead to panic).  We have many new and small producers raising pigs and we have many more pigs being transported to Washington state than in previous years—especially this time of year with show pigs moving around to shows and pre-weigh/tag events.  So with these new reported diseases in the state, this is good reminders for both experienced and new swine farmers to implement effective herd health programs, that also involve strict biosecurity plans.

“PRRS exist in two distinct forms, reproductive and respiratory, and infected farms may experience one or both.  A variety of factors, including swine genetics, the specific PRRS virus variant in the herd, health status of the herd, ages of the animals involved, and pregnancy status, may influence the signs.  As a consequence of mutation and recombination, new genetic variants of the PRRS virus appear frequently.  Constant genetic change in PRRS virus may explain: 1) the wide variation in clinical disease observed in the field; 2)why  prior exposure to one PRRS virus variant may not provide protective immunity against other variants; and 3) why certain vaccines may not be protective in some hers or under certain circumstances.”  The Pork Information Gateway, www.porkgateway.org has excellent factsheets about PRRS and PRRS Control/Elimination.  In addition, “The Pig Site” has a good outline of PRRS and symptoms at  http://www.thepigsite.com/diseaseinfo/97/porcine-reproductive-respiratory-syndrome-prrs/ .

Again, we often talk about the importance of a good biosecurity plan, however for it to be effective, it must be strictly followed.  As stated above, in Washington we have been fortunate to not only have low exposure to many of the swine diseases, but isolation (great diseases between swine herds) has helped decreases ability of exposure and spread for diseases like PRRS, PEDv, and Delta Coronavirus.  With these diseases (PRRS and Delta Coronavirus) being diagnosed in Washington swine herds recently and with many more pigs being transported within and across state lines, it is critical that we implement effective biosecurity practices and herd health plans to keep Washington swine herds healthy.  The Pork Information Gateway also has excellent biosecurity factsheets for farms of all sizes and youth raising pigs, www.porkgateway.org.

By Sarah M. Smith, WSU Extension

 

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