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Yellow and Dalmatian Toadflax

Yellow and Dalmatian Toadflax

PNW135
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Dale Whaley, Assistant Professor, Ag and Natural Resources, Washington State University Extension, Gary Piper, Emeritus Professor, Department of Entomology, Washington State University
Yellow toadflax and Dalmatian toadflax are non-native plants that have become two of the most troublesome invasive weeds in North America. Infesting forests, range and grasslands, and other areas, these two weeds are very prevalent in the Pacific Northwest. This publication outlines the plants’ characteristics, variations, growth and reproduction, distribution and economic impact, as well as management strategies.
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Introduction

Dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill. (Figure 1), and yellow toadflax, Linaria vulgaris Mill. (Figure 2), commonly referred to as “butter and eggs,” are two non-native plants that were introduced into North America as ornamentals from the Mediterranean region. Introduced by the 1800s, these two non-native plants have since escaped flower beds and have become two of the most troublesome invasive weeds infesting millions of acres across much of temperate North America. In the Pacific Northwest (defined here as Washington, Oregon, and Idaho) these plants can be found infesting forests, range and grassland, rights of way, lands put into conservation programs like the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), and other disturbed areas (Sing et al. 2015). Surprisingly, these plants can still be found today occurring in flower beds (Figure 3).

Figure 1. Dalmatian toadflax plant. Photo by Eric Coombs, Oregon Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org.
Figure 2. Yellow toadflax plant. Photo by L. Berry, Bugwood.org.
Figure 3. Dalmatian toadflax ornamental planting (2009). Photo by Dale Whaley, Washington State University.

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