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Recycling

Program Contact: Sarah Bergquist, Interim Director
(360) 639-6062 • timothy.lawrence@wsu.edu

The benefits of recycling

The act of recycling accomplishes many goals at once!

  1. Recycling reduces waste accumulation in landfills and the likelihood of environmental contamination. In 2017, recycling kept 67 million tons (about 25%) of municipal solid waste in the United States out of landfills.
  2. Recycling conserves resources for creating new products, reducing the demand for activities like mining and logging that can have detrimental environmental impacts. For example, recycling 1 ton of paper (200,000 sheets) saves about 17 trees, 380 gallons of oil, and 7,000 gallons of water compared to producing new paper.
  3. Recycling saves energy for manufacturers compared to using virgin materials, in many cases lowering operating expenses. For example, recycling aluminum takes 90% less energy than producing virgin aluminum.
  4. Recycling cuts greenhouse gas emissions by saving energy and reducing the demand for activities involved in acquiring virgin resources. For example, recycling 1 ton of paper (200,000 sheets) reduces greenhouse gas emissions the same amount as preventing 140 gallons of gasoline from being burned.
  5. Recycling supports the economy, contributing to an estimated 757,000 jobs and $36.6 billion in wages in the United States in 2007.

While it can be difficult to keep up with changing rules, recycling forms an important part of sustainable living where reducing and reusing aren’t practical. Recycling is just one of many actions that can help preserve our natural environments, but it’s one you can start or do more of today!

Recycle right, prevent contamination!

The benefits of recycling are only realized if your recycled materials make it all the way into a new product. Unfortunately, this journey can be far from straightforward. One of the common ways that recycled materials fail to complete this journey is if a load is contaminated by non-recyclables or dirty items. An entire load could be landfilled if it contains too many materials that are incorrect, soiled, or overly damaged (like paper shreds or broken glass).

Preventing contamination can be difficult because recycling rules can vary significantly by place, material, and method. Furthermore, some items that say they’re “recyclable” on their packaging might not be recyclable where you live. For example, in Island County, glass is only accepted for recycling at drop boxes, drop-off facilities, and in Camano Island’s curbside collection program.

The most important thing you can do to prevent contamination is to keep up to date on the recycling rules from your provider (see How to Recycle in Island County). Be sure to thoroughly empty, clean, and dry any recyclables as well. Common contaminants include:

  • Wet or food-soiled materials (e.g. dirty pizza boxes)
  • Bagged materials (unless you’re directed to bag them)
  • Styrofoam and packing peanuts
  • Paper shreds and broken glass
  • Medical waste (e.g. syringes), diapers, and prescription pill bottles (check Island County’s rules for medical waste here)

Some of these items can ruin other recyclables, while others, especially medical waste, can put people in danger if you put them in with your recycling. Be sure to check specific rules with your provider for how to dispose of hazardous items. For non-hazardous items, if you’re really unsure whether a particular item is recyclable, it’s better to dispose of it with the garbage (if it’s safe to do so) than to risk contaminating your recyclables. “When in doubt, throw it out.”

Some items can be contaminants depending on how you’re recycling them. For example, the following items can ONLY be recycled at Island County drop-off facilities (in dedicated containers) or as part of special collection programs. They should NOT be put in curbside recycling or in the normal recycling bins at drop-off facilities. These items include:

For more details on recycling right or if you’re unsure about a particular item, please contact the Waste Wise Coordinator using the contact information at the top of this web page. You can also consult your local provider or the Washington State Department of Ecology’s (WDOE) Recycle Right program. Finally, you can also try looking up nearby recycling options in Washington State by calling 1-800-RECYCLE or going online to http://1800recycle.wa.gov/.

What happens to my recyclables?

Out of sight, out of mind. It can be hard to tell what happens to our recycling after we put it out on the curb or drop it off at a facility. Following the journey our recycling takes, however, can illuminate both the importance of recycling correctly as well as how it can play a role in solving some of our most pressing environmental problems.

The journey of your recycling depends on where it begins. On Whidbey Island, they are collected either curbside, by Island Disposal (including the City of Oak Harbor), or Island Recycle, after you have dropped them at a recycle park.  On Camano Island, curbside recycling and any recyclables dropped off at the Camano Island transfer station are handled by Waste Management. They are sorted, either by you as the consumer, or at a materials recovery facility (MRF – Waste Management’s Cascade Recycling Center in Woodinville is a good example). Once they are sorted into bales or containers (in the case of glass) they are trucked to the appropriate company for processing into usable material.

What might my recyclables become?

You might be surprised at what products can be created from your recycled materials! The following list has some examples of some of the most common recyclables.

Metals:

  • Aluminum is a highly recyclable material: nearly 75% of the aluminum ever produced is still in use! An estimated 620,000 tons of aluminum cans alone were recycled in the U.S. in 2017. Most of these become new aluminum cans, but they can also be recycled into parts for cars, bicycles, and even airplanes as aluminum is lightweight as well as durable.
  • Steel is another commonly recycled metal, with cans and appliance parts making up the majority of steel in municipal solid waste. Like aluminum, recycled steel cans can become new cans as well as bicycle and car parts. However, steel can also be recycled into new appliances and construction materials such as steel rebar and steel beams.

Plastics:

  • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET/PETE) (resin code #1) is often used to create thin plastic beverage bottles (such as for soda) and is one of the most common plastics produced. Unlike metals, plastic is more difficult to recycle into the same item again and again. Instead, many recycled PET bottles become polyester fabric that’s used in products like carpet and clothing (t-shirts, fleece jackets, etc.). You might be wearing your old plastic bottles!
  • High-density polyethylene (HDPE) (resin code #2) is used to create sturdier plastic containers such as milk jugs and laundry detergent containers. In addition to new jugs and containers, recycled HDPE can also be used to manufacture a wide range of items including buckets, frisbees, and plastic “lumber” used in some outdoor furniture like park benches, play structures, and picnic tables.

Paper:

  • Cardboard (old corrugated cardboard, or “OCC”) is often recycled into new cardboard, but can also be recycled into paper bags, boxboard (shoe boxes, cereal boxes, etc.), and even wood chip substitutes. Cardboard benefits from being one of the easiest materials to sort out at recycling material recovery facilities (MRFs).
  • Mixed paper such as boxboard (shoe boxes, cereal boxes, etc.), office paper, and newspaper is typically broken down into pulp and used to make more of the same products at paper mills. Depending on the grade of fiber, mixed paper can also be recycled into paper towel or toilet paper rolls, or the paper towel or toilet paper itself, or similar products like napkins and facial tissues. Finally, recycled paper can become a part of aggregate materials like building insulation, drywall (sheet rock), or cat litter.

Glass:

  • Glass bottles and jars (not other household glasses like vases) are often used to make new glass bottles and jars. Like aluminum, glass is a highly recyclable material that can be used to re-create the same types of products again and again. Some recycled glass is repurposed into more specialty materials like countertops, tiling, landscaping fixtures, and even roadway base aggregate material.

Resources

https://archive.epa.gov/wastes/conserve/tools/payt/web/html/factfin.html

https://www.epa.gov/energy/greenhouse-gas-equivalencies-calculator

https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2019-10/documents/warm_v15_management_practices_updated_10-08-2019.pdf

https://www.epa.gov/smm/recycling-economic-information-rei-report

https://www.epa.gov/facts-and-figures-about-materials-waste-and-recycling/advancing-sustainable-materials-management

https://www.epa.gov/facts-and-figures-about-materials-waste-and-recycling/national-overview-facts-and-figures-materials#Recycling/Composting

https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/publications/SummaryPages/1607028.html

https://kingcounty.gov/~/media/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/business/documents/GWvol42.ashx?la=en

https://kingcounty.gov/depts/dnrp/solid-waste/programs/climate/climate-change-recycling.aspx

http://wmnorthwest.com/cascaderecycling/profile.html

https://www.maine.gov/dep/waste/recycle/whatrecyclablesbecome.html

https://www.recycling-revolution.com/recycling-facts.html

https://www.recycleandrecoverplastics.org/consumers/kids-recycling/plastics-can-become/

https://www.recycleeverywhere.ca/recycling-info/life-beyond-the-landfill/

https://www.aluminum.org/sustainability/aluminum-recycling

https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/c1196w/c1196w.pdf

https://www.rubicon.com/blog/statistics-trash-recycling/

https://www.rubicon.com/blog/aluminum-recycling/

https://www.strategicmaterials.com/containers/

http://1800recycle.wa.gov

How to recycle in Island County

Island County encourages and rewards recycling by not charging a disposal fee for most recyclables. The disposal options available to you for recyclables depend on where you live.

Recycling contamination MOST WANTED

Putting contaminants in your recycling could render a whole load unrecyclable. Keep a lookout for these top offenders and be sure they don’t make it into your recycling!

1. Plastic bags, films, and wraps

Plastic bags, films, and wraps aren’t accepted in curbside or drop-off recycling, but they can be recycled at participating stores (find the nearest location at PlasticFilmRecycling.org).

 

2. Wet or food-soiled materials

Dirty pizza boxes, soiled food packaging, wet cardboard, etc. cannot be recycled. It’s also important to keep other items in your recycling, such as cans, relatively dry to avoid soaking cardboard and paper.

 

3. Bagged materials (unless you’re directed to bag them)

Check with your local provider or drop-off facility about whether certain recyclables should be bagged. If not, leave the materials loose so they can be sorted easily at the material recovery facility (MRF).

 

4. Styrofoam and packing peanuts

Styrofoam breaks apart during sorting and isn’t easily compacted into bales. Some recycling options exist for Styrofoam if you’re willing to travel outside of Island County. Please contact the Waste Wise Program Coordinator for more information. Otherwise, Styrofoam should be disposed of in garbage.

 

5. Paper shreds and broken glass

Paper and glass in general might be recyclable, but broken pieces and scraps can be dangerous and aren’t easily sorted at material recovery facilities (MRFs). Dispose of these in your garbage, and double-bag and/or wrap broken glass in cloth for safety.

 

6. Medical waste

Do not put needles, diapers, prescription pill bottles, or other medical waste in with your recycling. Medical waste can be very dangerous if not handled properly and has specific disposal requirements. Please check Island County’s website for information on disposing of medical waste (Medications & Sharps Disposal). Diapers should just be thrown away.

 

7. Clothing

Clothing isn’t accepted in curbside recycling, but you can recycle it at Island County recycling drop-off facilities or at stores participating in the Northwest Center Blue Bin / Blue Truck program (find the nearest location at BigBlueTruck.org).

 

8. Electronics and Batteries

Certain types of electronics are accepted for “e-cycling” at Island County drop-off facilities, while others might be accepted at local electronics stores. Check the specifics of the drop-off facility for more information (How to recycle in Island County).

 

9. Holiday lights

Don’t put these in with your normal recycling. However, Island County Waste Wise runs a yearly collection drive each winter if you’d like to recycle your holiday lights!

 

10. Fluorescent light bulbs (including spiral CFL bulbs)

Fluorescent light bulbs contain a small amount of mercury and shouldn’t be put in with your recycling (where they can break). Instead, they are accepted for drop-off at many hardware stores. Placing each bulb in an individual sealed plastic bag will help prevent mercury exposure if a bulb breaks during transport.